BRISBANE, QUEENSLAND: 1863–1950

James & Mary Hardman (Great-great-grandparents)

Queen Street, Brisbane, much as the Hardman family would have found it when they arrived in February 1863. The photo on the left is from 1858, the one on the right from 1866. The Ferguson family would have found it the same in 1862.

After arriving in Queensland, we hear very little about James and Mary until they die — but the first event for the family, 11 months after disembarking from S.V. “Wanata”, was the marriage of their fourth daughter (sixth child):

1864 Colony of QUEENSLAND MARRIAGES: District of Brisbane 1Source: Hardman, Hannah Maria & Young, Charles; 1864  Colony of Queensland Marriages; Nº 812; Brisbane.

married: 9th January 1864
at: Manse, Ann Street, North Brisbane
According to the Rites of the Presbyterian Church

Charles Young, Seaman (Bachelor)    of: Brisbane

Hannah Maria Hardman, her X mark (Spinster)   of: Brisbane

minister: Charles Ogg, Officiating
witnessesGeorge Tidey; James Hardman

Here we find Maria starting to use the name “Hannah”, and that later becomes “Anna”. She was five months pregnant with her first child, and her husband we later discover is from Hastings in Sussex, England. “Hannah’s” story was to become a lot more intriguing, as we will find out further on. The next information we have are two interesting snippets to be found in The Queenslander, one of the local rags. On 23 March 1867, we find a report of a summons case where:

John Swain was fined 20s., and 3s. 6d. costs, for plying for hire without a license.—A similar charge against James Hardman was dismissed for want of proof.

Well, James seems to have got away with that one, but just over three years later, The Queenslander again reports from the Police Court (27 May 1870):

At the Police Court, yesterday, James Hardman was charged with absconding from the hired service of Mr. Baynes, butcher, South Brisbane. Fined £3, or one month’s hard labor.—Several parties were fined for keeping goats within the municipality.

There is a possibility that the “James Hardman” in these reports is the son, who we know nothing of after arriving in Queensland — James Jnr. would have been respectively 30 and 33 at the time of these reports. Sadly, though, the Hardman’s youngest son, Alfred, was to drown in a boating accident off the southern end of Stradbroke Island in October 1871 (in those days, North and South Stradbroke islands were one continuous landmass). Alfred at that time was a saddler, and had never married — he was only 23.

George Street, Brisbane. This street runs along the north side of the Brisbane River at the top end of Queen Street. These 1865 photos taken at opposite ends of the street show the original Bellevue Hotel at the eastern end (near today’s Parliament House), and the Brisbane Hospital at the western end, which stood where the Supreme Court building is today. Both of these buildings would have been very familiar to the Hardman and Ferguson families.

The Hardman’s seemed to attract trouble, because in May 1871, our Emma Alice was robbed of a 30-shilling pair of gold earrings while working at the Crown Hotel in George Street. The suspect was brought before the courts in February 1872, and here’s an edited report from “The Brisbane Courier” at the time:

A PAIR OF GOLD EARRINGS.—Michael Richardson, a feeble old man, was charged with stealing a pair of gold earrings, the property of Emma Hardman, a servant girl. On defendant being charged in court with larceny, he said, “I cannot help that, sir, whatever is charged against me is wrong.” Emma Hardman said she was a servant to Mr Rowe, at the Crown Hotel, George street, in May last; on the 27th of that month, about half-past 10 or 11 at night, she laid a pair of gold earrings on the kitchen table; they were in a red case, and were worth 30s., she had occasion to leave the kitchen; on her return, in about ten minutes, the earrings and case were gone; she did not give them to any one, and had not seen them since, till last Wednesday, when they were shown to her by Detective Mooney.

Adam Fiebig, owner of the Crown Hotel property, said [the] prisoner showed him a pair of earrings in a red box, stating that they had been given to him by an old sweetheart—(laughter)—and that he had had them about six months; witness offered to buy them; but prisoner refused to part with them, stating that he must give them up when the party called for them. […] Witness had a suspicion at that time that the earrings had been stolen, but he did not believe that the old man was the thief.—

Mr. Inspector Lewis (who prosecuted) said the prisoner had refused to give any account as to how he became possessed of the property; hence the present proceedings. […] —His Worship said he did not think that prisoner had stolen the earrings; at the same time he had himself entirely to blame for what had occurred, as he should have explained to the police how he came by the property.— He was accordingly discharged.

The Hardman family lived for many years at South Brisbane. The photo to the left shows the original Victoria Bridge in 1865 from South Brisbane (Spring Hill is at top left) ; the illustration on the right (1873) shows the same scene, but from further east (where Somerville House Girls School now stands). It’s feasible the Hardman family lived at one of these buildings in the foreground.

Robert Hardman, c.1847–13 Sep 1903.

Only three months after this court case, another of the Hardman’s sons was to marry: Robert Franklin Hardman had moved to Inverell, New South Wales, and on 7 May 1872, he married Mary Jane Grayson. Over the next 18 years, Robert and Mary Jane were to have seven children, and lived most of their lives at Denison Street, Narrabri. [Robyn has at least 9 known DNA connections to this family]. It seems unlikely that Robert kept contact with his Brisbane relatives, because when he died in 1903, his widow was unable to supply his parents’s names for the death certificate.

As we will soon discover in a separate chapter, by the end of 1873,  “Hannah” Maria (with two daughters) seems to have parted company with her husband, Charles Young, and taken up with a new ‘beau’ — she was by now living at the top end of Edward Street in Spring Hill (see photos above). Her parents, though, appear to have been living at South Brisbane for some years, and that’s where they were when Mary Ann headed for the Pearly Gates:

1876 Colony of QUEENSLAND DEATHS: Brisbane 2Source: HARDMAN, Mary Ann [Frankland]; 1876 Queensland Deaths; Nº 34; Brisbane.

Mary Ann Hardman,  age: 64 years
died: 10th February, 1876;   at: Sexton Street, South Brisbane
cause: General Debility, 9 days
doctor: Dr Blundell;   last seen: 5th February 1876

father: James Franklin  [Frankland —ed.] (Shoemaker)
mother: Unknown  [Ann Warburton —ed.]
informant: James Hardman, Husband;   of: Sexton Street, South Brisbane

buried: 11th February 1876, General Cemetery [Toowong —ed.];  undertaker: G.W.C. Wilson
minister: P. Clipsham;   religion: Wesleyan  [Methodist —ed.]

where born: Middleton, near Manchester;   how long in colony: 13 years in Queensland
married to: James Hardman   at: Middleton   aged: About 20 [18 —ed.]  years
issue living: Joseph (35); Elizabeth (35); James (20); Maria (28); Jane Ann (26); Emma (24)
issue deceased: 1 male

Mary Ann was actually just a bit over 66, and it seems strange that James couldn’t supply the name of her mother; also, she was only 18 when she married. Sexton Street lay behind and to the left of the images above. Another interesting thing was that she had reverted to the Methodist faith, despite having being re-baptised as Church of England in 1827 (see the previous page). James was also dismally ill-informed about his children’s ages, and had completely forgotten two of them — this section should have read: Joseph (47); Elizabeth Hulme (45); Martha Knott (43); James (38);  Jane Ann Reed (36); Maria Young (32); Robert (29); Emma Alice (22). The deceased male was Alfred, the one who drowned off South Stradbroke Island in 1871.

The year after her mother died, Emma Alice tied the knot with  David Ferguson, a sawyer from Nerang near the Gold Coast. Their story is part of the Ferguson saga, but her marriage certificate shows the Hardman family was still in South Brisbane in early 1877:

1877 Colony of QUEENSLAND MARRIAGES: Brisbane 3Source: FERGUSON, David & HARDMAN, Emma Alice; Queensland Marriage Extract; Nº A 39191; Brisbane.

married: 21 February 1877
at: South BrisbaneIn the house of the Revd. D.F. Mitchell, Hope Street
according to the rites of the Presbyterian Church


David Ferguson, Sawyer, (Bachelor);   age: 26
of: Nerang Creek, Gilston
father: Walter [2] Ferguson, Timber Cutter
mother:  Margaret McKerrow

Emma Alice Hardman, (Spinster)    age: 22
of: South Brisbane
fatherJames Hardman, Farmer
mother:  Mary  —  [Mary Ann Frankland (dec’d) — ed.]

minister: D.F. Mitchell, Officiating
witnessesWalter [2] Ferguson; Ellen Patterson

James Hardman was to survive Mary Ann by almost another nine years, but by this time had moved to Albert Street in Stratton, or [Old] Bulimba, on the north side of Brisbane close to Breakfast Creek. This address is now Kyabra Street, Newstead, and became significant for his daughter Emma Alice — we’ll find out more later. We do discover, though, that James had a drinking problem, which might explain his memory failures on his wife’s death certificate:

1885 Colony of QUEENSLAND DEATHS: District of Brisbane 4Source: HARDMAN, James; 1885 Queensland Deaths; Nº 17469; Brisbane.

James Hardman, Farmer;   age: 77 years
died: 22nd January 1885;  at: Albert Street, Stratton  [now Kyabra Street, Newstead —ed.]
cause: Apoplexy accelerated by Alcoholism and Injury
doctor: Dr. J Bancroft   last seen: 20th January 1885

father: [Not recorded – Robert Hardman —ed.]
mother: [Not recorded – Betty Butterworth —ed.]
informant: David Ferguson, Son-in-Law;    of: Albert Street, Stratton

buried: 23rd January 1885; Toowong Cemetery;    undertaker: Wm. Ferguson 
minister: James Stewart;    religion: Presbyterian

where born: Lancashire, England;    years in colony: 20 [23 —ed.] years,
married to: Mary Ann Frankland;    at: England;   aged: 19 [nearly 21 —ed.] years
issue living: Elizabeth (52); Joseph (50); James (40); Robert (32); Jane Ann (38); Maria (31); Emma Alice Ferguson (26)
issue deceased: [Not recorded, but: Alfred (23); Martha (50) —ed.]

The informant here was David Ferguson, a son-in-law married to his youngest daughter Emma Alice, and Robyn’s great-grandparents. Again, the ages of James’ children are way off mark, and David even took six years off his own wife! Although he remembered to mention all of his wife’s living siblings, he forgot the two who were deceased: Alfred (23), the one who drowned, and Martha Knott (50), who died in Salford, Lancashire, just 16 months earlier. The ‘issue living’ should have read: Joseph (56); Elizabeth Hulme (54); James (47); Jane Ann Reed (45); Maria Young (41); Robert (38); Emma Alice Ferguson (31).

James Hardman and Mary Ann Frankland were buried together at Toowong Cemetery, but they are not alone in the grave. Also buried in the same plot is a George Young, who died 13 August 1877, eighteen months after Mary Ann, and a John Edward Manquest, who died on 5 November 1888, nearly four years after James — so, who were these people? Well, it took quite some research to track them down, and this is where the life and times of Emma’s older sister Maria becomes very interesting!

”Hannah/Anna” Maria Young (great-grand aunt)

As we saw at the beginning of this page, five-months-pregnant Maria Hardman married a Charles Young, seaman, less than 11 months after arriving in the colony. This couple had two girls: Elizabeth Ann (1864) and Mary Emma (1866). Both girls were born at South Brisbane, the area south of the Brisbane River where the Hardman family seemed to live for many years. Nothing more may have ever been thought about this branch of the family except for two puzzling discoveries. First, the two children (George Young and John Manquest) buried in Toowong Cemetery with James & Mary Ann Hardman — and second, that in 1919, Maria was buried in the grave of a two-year-old A.E.D. Yow, and was joined 44 years later by a Georgina Young. Again, the question arises: who were these other people sharing Hardman graves?

The ‘Young’ family, L–R: Henrietta; Georgina; “Anna” Maria; Ernest; Minni; Una.

Back in 2017, I contacted a fellow user on Ancestry.com, who managed a tree that had DNA matches to Robyn; in fact, the wife of this user was a great-great-grandchild of Maria Hardman, and she is connected to “Yow” family members living in Brisbane — and these folk are of Chinese origin. Amazingly, this family had a portrait of Maria with four daughters and a son — and all five children in the photograph are clearly of Eurasian appearance. At first, I assumed the “Manquest” name from James and Mary Ann’s grave was likely part of this Asian connection, but my Ancestry contact quickly researched and discovered that the person buried there was the infant son of a John Edwin Malinquist, a Swedish seaman, who was married to Maria’s first daughter, Elizabeth Ann — it was time to spend some money at Queensland’s birth, deaths and marriages.

The children of “Anna” Maria Young (previously Hardman)

The excessive cost of obtaining electronic copies of historic birth, death and marriage certificates in Queensland (currently $23 a pop, about five times the cost of Scottish records) always made finding information about our extended family a daunting project — but when you need the information, it’s pay up and hope for the best! Luckily, the certificates I needed were easy to find, and the information contained in Queensland records is generally very good. Once I began the search, it didn’t take too long to work out that “Anna” Maria Young-Hardman had, in all, eight children: two by her husband, Charles Young, and six by a completely unknown person who, as we can see from the family photo above, must have been of Asian (almost certainly Chinese) descent. So, following is a summary of each of her children, and this will resolve the puzzle of the graves:

  1. Elizabeth Ann Young was born on 11 May 1864, four months after her parents married. Elizabeth married a Swedish seaman, John Edwin Malinquist, when she was 21 (1885), and they had three children. Their first was  John Edwin, born 12 April 1886, who died when he was two, and was buried with his great-grandparents, James and Mary Ann Hardman (first puzzle solved). For a time this family lived in Albert Street, Stratton (which was renamed as Kyabra Street, Newstead, in about 1904).
    Their neighbours were her aunt Emma Alice Ferguson and her husband, David (Robyn’s great-grandparents). Elizabeth’s next two children were Maida (1888–1961) and Annie Maria (1891–1963, pictured below). Annie Maria eventually married an Alexander Fittler, and he is related to Australian Rugby League superstar, Brad Fittler — royalty, indeed! I have never found Elizabeth’s death, but her Swedish husband died on 16 December 1925 at the Benevolent Asylum on Stradbroke Island. The surviving children were, according to a descendant, put into foster care in New South Wales.
  2. Mary Emma Young came into this world at South Brisbane on 7 June 1866, and from her birth certificate we discover her father, Charles Young, was born in Hastings, Sussex, England. Mary Emma married an American, Frederick Russ Loring, in 1882 — they had six children in Brisbane, three of whom she outlived. The last of “Anna” Maria’s legitimate children died in 1949 at her home on the corner of Park Road West and Lindon Street, Highgate Hill, Brisbane.
  3. Minnie Young — There was an eight-year gap before “Anna” Maria had another child. Sometime in this period, Charles Young had either died or disappeared, but no record has come to light. On 17 August 1874, Maria gave birth to Minnie, and the birth certificate is marked “Illegitimate” and no father is recorded. Minnie married Daniel George Davis in 1892, and died in Brisbane on 10 June 1948.
  4. George Edward Young was born in Leichhardt Street, Spring Hill, on 8 August 1877. Again, his birth certificate was marked “illegitimate”, and without a father’s name. Sadly, little George died three days later and was buried in his grandmother’s (Mary Ann Frankland’s) grave at Toowong — puzzle number two solved! His grandfather, James Hardman, and John Edward Malinquist would be interred with them in the years to follow.
  5. Una Young came along two years later on 27 June 1879, also born in Leichhardt Street. No prizes for guessing she was also an illegitimate child with no father named. Una married Arthur Joseph Fay in August 1898, and died a widow at the ripe old age of 91 at 46 Temple Street, Coorparoo, on 28 October 1970. (See picture below.)
  6. Henrietta Young was the next of this line of illegitimate children, and she was born in Albert Street, Brisbane, on 17 July 1881. We cannot be sure if this was what was then Albert Street at Stratton (now Kyabra Street), or Albert Street, Spring Hill. Given that most of “Anna” Maria’s illegitimate children were born in and around the central city area, I suspect it was in Spring Hill. Henrietta married Cantonese-born Jamey Dung Yow on 27 November 1900 (see his picture in the gallery below).  Jamey was a local business man, and his family had connections with the building of the Holy Triad Temple at Breakfast Creek in Brisbane. He was also Queensland’s first ever naturalised Chinese immigrant, and worked for a time at the Fortitude Valley Post Office as a translator.
        Henrietta and Jamey had seven children between 1901 and 1915, and their first was Alick Edward Dung Yow (i.e. A.E.D. Yow), but he died aged two at Stanley Street, South Brisbane — and he was buried at Toowong Cemetery, where he was later joined by his grandmother, “Anna” Maria Hardman,  in 1919, and an aunt in 1963. Puzzle three solved! On 31 January 1916, Henrietta and Jamey boarded the Japanese ship “St Albans” and headed off with their children to Hong Kong for an extended business trip, intending to return in December 1918 (see Customs photos of Henrietta below). However, disaster was to strike. As World War One was drawing to a close, a Spanish Flu epidemic began to engulf the world, and it claimed three members of the Yow family while staying at Connaught Road, Hong Kong: Jamey (46), Henrietta (36) and their seven-year-old daughter, Ivy May. Five other children — Stanley (14), Leonard (12), Harold (10), Ruby (4) and Allen (2) — were left orphans, and these all returned to Brisbane (see Customs photos of some of these children below).
  7. Georgina Young was the next of the illegitimate children, and she was born in Margaret Street, central Brisbane, on 24 January 1883. As far as I can tell, Georgina never married, though her death certificate gives a Charles Kayoi Young as a husband; this is clearly a mistake, as Charles Young was her mother’s deserted husband. After the untimely death of Henrietta in Hong Kong, Georgina was made the executor for her sister’s will in January 1919, and also made the legal guardian of Leonard Dung Yow, one of the five orphans. Georgina’s address at the time was Upper Melbourne Street, South Brisbane. Georgina was living at a shop with another nephew, Allen Yow, at 342 Montague Road, West End when she died, and was buried in her grandmother’s grave along with her nephew Alick Yow — another puzzle solved!
  8. Ernest Young was the last child of “Anna” Maria and her mysterious Chinese partner; he was born in Margaret Street on 9 April 1887. I know very little about his life, but he married Louisa Ah Look in 1912, and she was born in Sawell, Victoria, in 1889; Louisa died, after only six years of marriage, on 22 March 1919. Information from other Ancestry trees has Ernest dying in Brisbane on 27 June 1976, aged 89.

Following is the family chart showing the connections between the Hardman, Young and Dung Yow families — it focusses on the descendants of “Anna” Maria Hardman. It also shows, for each branch, the number of Ancestry.com DNA connections to Robyn.

❝ In the WILL of  JAMEY DUNG YOW, formerly of Montague road West End, South Brisbane, in the State of Queensland, but late of Connaught road, Central Victoria, in the Colony of Hong Kong, Produce Merchant, Deceased. Notice is hereby given that, after the expiration of fourteen days from the date of the publication hereof, application will be made to this Honourable Court that ADMINISTRATION of the PERSONAL ESTATE of the above named Jamey Dung Yow, deceased, with his WILL, may be granted to GEORGINA YOUNG, of Upper Melbourne street, South Brisbane, in the State of Queensland, Spinster, the Testamentary Guardian of LEONARD DUNG YOW, of Upper Melbourne street, South Brisbane, in the said State, Minor, a lawful child, and one of the next of kin of the said deceased, limited to the minority of the said Leonard Dung Yow, and until he shall apply for and obtain a Grant of Administration of the Personal Estate of the said deceased HENRIETTA DUNG YOW, the sole Executrix and Beneficiary under the Will of the said deceased, having died without obtaining Probate thereof. Any person interested who desires to object to the application, or to be heard upon it, may file a Caveat in the Registry at any time before the grant is made.❞

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